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A Scottish feudal lord ranks above a Scottish feudal baron (being a feudal baron of a higher degree), but below a lord of parliament which is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, and below a feudal earldom, which is a feudal barony of still higher degree than a feudal lordship. There are far fewer feudal lordships than feudal baronies, whilst feudal earldoms are very rare.[1]

While feudal barons originally sat in parliament (along with the lords and higher nobility who made up the Peerage), all of the peerage, originally, was within the feudal system. Later, some of what used to be feudal lordships came to be known as peerages (such as that of The Right Honourable The Lord Forrester) while others were sold, inherited by greater peers, or otherwise disqualified from the modern-day peerage. The feudal rights were gradually emasculated and, with the demise of the Scottish parliament in 1707, the right of feudal barons to sit in parliament ceased altogether, unless, that is, a feudal baron was also a Peer (Peerage rights are dealt with elsewhere).

Feudal lordships were all but abolished by Act of Parliament in 1747, following the Jacobite Uprising. A feudal barony no longer carries any political power as such, although the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 has preserved the baronies themselves, and the quality, precedence and heraldic rights pertaining to these baronies.

A peer is invariably addressed as 'Lord Placename' or 'Lord Such-and-so', whilst those holding a feudal lordship are addressed 'Lord of Placename' or 'Baron of Placename' and feudal barons are addressed as 'Baron of Placename' or 'Placename'.

A female feudal baron is usually referred to as 'Lady Placename'. The wife of a Lord receives the courtesy title 'Lady Placename', but the husband of a Lady, who holds a feudal barony in her own right, is just plain Mr. 'Surname'.

Lords of regality, feudal lords, and feudal barons are not to be confused with a manorial lordship.

Contents

Order of precedence of Scottish feudal titles[edit]

Wallace states that:

"Lordships, Earldoms, Marquisates and Dukedoms differ only in name from Baronies" but continues "one whose property was erected into a Lordship ranked before a simple Baron" and "A person to whom an Earldom belonged, would be superior to a person who had no more than a lordship ... One, whose lands were incorporated into a Marquisate, was superior to both ... A man, who owned a fief elevated into a Dukedom, was exhaulted above all three."[2]

The inference in terms of superiority from greater to lesser is thus: Feudal Duke, Feudal Marquis, Feudal Earl, Feudal Lord, Feudal Baron. (Note however that Lord Stair states that Lordships or Earldoms are "but more noble titles of a Barony".[3])

Usage[edit]

The holder of a Scottish feudal lordship, in similar fashion to the holder of a barony (e.g., "Inverglen"), may add the title to his existing name (e.g., "John Smith, Lord of Inverglen") or add the territorial designation to his surname ("John Smith of Inverglen, Lord of Inverglen"); some of the oldest Scottish families prefer to be styled by the territorial designation alone ("Smith of Inverglen").[4][5][6]

According to the UK government, the current policy of using titles on passports requires that the applicant provides evidence that the Lord Lyon has recognised a feudal barony (or in this case feudal lordship), or the title is included in Burke's Peerage. If accepted (and if the applicant wishes to include the title), the correct form is for the applicant to include the territorial designation as part of their surname (Surname of territorial designation e.g. Smith of Inverglen). The Observation would then show the holder's full name, followed by their feudal title e.g. The holder is John Smith, Lord of Inverglen.[7]

List of feudal lordships (created before 1707)[edit]

Below is an incomplete list of Scottish feudal lordships created in Scotland before 1707.

Lordship County Createda Incumbent Succeeded
Abernethy Perthshire HE Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz, GCMLJ, FRSA 2008
Ardrossan Ayrshire 1357
Buncle and Preston Berwickshire Olivier Fuchs of Cockburn
Coldingham Berwickshire 1141
Cumbernauld Lanarkshire 1314
Dirleton East Lothian 1220 Baron Camilo Agasim-Pereira of Fulwood 2000
Dudhope Angus 1542
Garioch Aberdeenshire 12th century
Hailes East Lothian 20 Dec 1451b S. Malin of Hailes 2008
Holydean Roxburghshire 1128 Taylor Forrester Moffitt 2006
Jedburgh Forest Roxburghshire 3 Feb 1602 Richard Bruce Bernadotte Miller 2010
Kilmarnock Ayrshire 1316 Eur Ing David Ayre 2002
Strathdee Aberdeenshire 1563
Urquhart Inverness-shire 1230

a: The creation date is the earliest known date for the Lordship and subject to revision

b: The Barony of Hailes was granted to Adam de Hepburn by Patrick de Dunbar, Earl of March in 1343

See also[edit]